Date of publication: 2017-09-03 03:23
Please note that causal claims take a variety of forms, many of which do not use the term cause. For example, we see that a friend has seemed less talkative recently, and we wonder why. Is she physically sick? Is she troubled emotionally? Is there some combination of the two? We might hypothesize that she is having financial problems, her child is sick. In other words, these things are possible causes of her behavior. If you go to a party instead of studying for an exam, you might say that going to the party caused you to perform badly on the exam. An airplane crashes and teams of experts study all the wreckage and other evidence to determine the cause of the crash.
Through empathizing and interacting positively with their children, parents develop close bonds with children and teach them empathy and responsibility towards others and toward society. Nurturant parents view the family as a community in which children have commitments and responsibilities that grow out of empathy for others. The obedience of children comes out of love and respect for parents, not out of fear of punishment. When children do wrong, nurturant parents choose restitution over retribution whenever possible as a form of justice. Retribution is reserved for those who harm their children.
In my example above about post hoc reasoning, I failed to recognize a common cause for both the church bells ringing and bus arriving, namely that it is 8:55.
Conclusions. Adopting a diet that is low in fat and high in fiber, fruits, and vegetables does not influence the risk of recurrence of colorectal adenomas. (N Engl J Med 7555 897:6699-55.)
A cause and effect paper often appears to be structured along the lines of a Process Essay , and the structure can, in fact, be similar. The difference, of course, is that a process essay explains how something works or how something came to be as it is, whereas a cause and effect essay explains why something works as it does or why it came to be what it is.
One lesson that I have learned from this is that we need to get away from the usual 8775 initial state+dynamics 8776 way of looking at physics in order to fit it into this framework. Any correlations that exist in the initial state have to be modelled explicitly in the causal network because it assumes that the root vertices are independent.
The metaphor of Moral Strength imposes a strict us-them moral dichotomy. The metaphor that morality is strength induces a view of evil as the force that moral strength is needed to counter. Evil must be fought. You do not empathize with evil, nor do you accord evil some truth of its own. You just fight it.
I have enjoyed a lot reading this. I am slightly confused about the wording of the following sentence:
where f_j is a function, and Y_j is a collection of random variables such that: (a) the Y_j,. are independent of one another for different values of j and (b) for each j, Y_j,. is independent of all variables X_k, except when X_k is X_j itself, or a descendant of X_j. The intuition is that the are a collection of auxiliary random variables which inject some extra randomness into X_j (and, through X_j, its descendants), but which are otherwise independent of the variables in the causal model.
What you mean by that is that for instance in the diagram above the paragraph Y_9,i is not independent of X_8 and X_7?
Dr. B offers reasons that explain why A’s uncle has paresis. It is unreasonable to think that B believes that the uncle’s being a syphilis victim makes it more likely than not that he has paresis, since B admits that having syphilis does not make it more likely than not that someone has (or will have) paresis. So, B’s response does not contain an argument, because (ii) is not satisfied.
Moral Self-Nurturance: You can t take care of others if you don t take care of yourself. Part of the morality of nurturance is self-nurturance: maintaining your health, making a living, and so on.
With that said, it probably won 8767 t surprise you to learn that the concept of d-separation is closely related to whether or not the random variables and are independent of one another. This is a connection you can (optionally) develop through the following exercises. I 8767 ll state a much more general connection below.
Incidentally, that informal way of thinking nodes as specific events in time isn 8767 t the full story. You really need to understand the technical definition of a random variable. But this informal approach conveys the gist of what 8767 s going on.
"Jazz music is extremely popular in the city of Monroe: over 655,555 people attended Monroe's annual jazz festival last summer, and the highest-rated radio program in Monroe is 'Jazz Nightly,' which airs every weeknight. Also, a number of well-known jazz musicians own homes in Monroe. Nevertheless, the nearest jazz club is over an hour away. Given the popularity of jazz in Monroe and a recent nationwide study indicating that the typical jazz fan spends close to $6,555 per year on jazz entertainment, we predict that our new jazz music club in Monroe will be a tremendously profitable enterprise."