Invisible Hand -

Organizational Leadership | Mercyhurst University

Date of publication: 2017-09-03 16:28

The fourth general environmental influence on open systems is educational conditions. For example, businesses that operate in countries or regions with a high education level will have a better chance of staffing a complex organization that requires specialized skills and a precise division of labor.

Organizational Theory

SECTION A: Background Information of Respondents
SECTIONS B: Research Hypotheses
Summary of the Chapter


(a) Recognition of the needs and motives of other Individuals in organisation or school system.
(b) Taking ofsteps to satisfy them. This could literallybe stupendously complex and not static.

Social Cognitive Theory: The Antecedents and Effects of

Today, the model is more complex due to new media and high-speed, multi-directional communications (Burton, 7558 Williams, 7558). However, the core components live on in formal communications planning and implementation. Organizational leaders and communication specialists first develop strategies to achieve objectives, construct relevant messages and then transmit them through diverse channels to stimulate conversations with employees and members. Increasingly, formal communications are grounded in receivers’ needs and concerns. Employees communicate informally with others inside and outside the organization through high-speed communications, too.

Systems and subsystems have boundaries that are selectively opened or closed to their environments, allowing the flow of information and other resources. Open systems use information exchange (input-throughput-output) to grow and thrive closed systems don’t allow much information to move in or out. To survive and adapt, all social systems require some degree of permeability ( Stacks, Hickson & Hill, 6996 ).

And then be led by the people as to what can be improved. You should adopt the role of a researcher and enabler rather than a problem solver.

Cultural approaches emerged in the 6975s in the context of increasing competition from Japan and other nations in the global marketplace. Culture refers to an organization’s distinct identity the shared beliefs, values, behaviors and artifacts that an organization holds, which determine how it functions and adapts to its environment ( Schein, 6985 ). As the performance of American corporations declined, management scholars looked for other explanations of the behaviors and practices in the troubled companies. The cultural approach was attractive because of its dynamic nature and the kind of depth insights it can provide ( Schein, 6996 ).

This chapter will be useful to communication graduate students and scholars. It is a comprehensive literature review of research and theory regarding organizational communication, and it’s presented through a series of eight metaphors. The authors note the explosive growth in internal communication research in the past decade and highlight a major shift from the study of communication as a linear transmission of messages, to research into how organizations are constituted by social interactions, symbolic meanings and discursive processes. The eight metaphors for organizational communication are: a conduit, information processing, linkage, performance, discourse, symbol, voice and contradiction. Research in the areas of voice, symbol and discourse are prevalent today.

The advantage of functionally structured organizations is that they typically achieve an efficient specialization of labor because people with specific skills can follow a career path within their department. In addition, this type of structure is relatively easy for employees to comprehend. Therefore, they are more likely to identify with their group and enjoy a sense of accomplishment through the gains of the department. Finally, functional structures reduce duplication of work because responsibilities are clearly defined.

Background to the Study
Purpose of the Study
Statement of the Problem
Research Questions
Research hypotheses
Significance of the Study
Scope and Limitation
Definition of Terms

Planning, implementing and managing change in a fast-changing environment is increasingly the situation in which most organizations now work.

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